Bernard’s Travels (2)

In November 2018 I was at Bellapais Abbey, near Kyrenia, Northern Cyprus. It was my third visit. My first had been 61 years ago. My year in Cyprus (1957-8) in the British Army had been unlike any other of my life. I kept a diary and filled a photographic album. I was tanned and had learned to swim. I overheard more obscenities in that one year than in all the others of my life. I had my own Sten-gun and was licensed to use it to kill people in certain circumstances. All the time I was myself in danger of being killed.
Cyprus at the time was a dangerous place for everyone. EOKA, a terrorist organisation dedicated to union with Greece, had started killing, and the army had retaliated. The Turks, who made up 20 percent of the population, were understandably not impressed. The two populations had never mingled on any scale. Very few Cypriots spoke both Greek and Turkish. Opinions and actions quickly polarised. 
Like most Mediterranean islands, Cyprus had a history of occupation by outside forces: Romans, Byzantines, Venetians, everyone had come and conquered. The British were the latest, given Cyprus as part of a deal at the Congress of Berlin in 1878. So my role was in the army of occupation, at a time when the British Empire was well into its dissolution. At the other end of the Med, the French were hanging on (at an even greater cost) to Algeria. In Cyprus 492 Cypriots and 142 British people were murdered between 1954 and 1958. These deaths in Cyprus raised its profile from a sleepy backwater to world news.
At this time the British Army was incredibly naive in its standing on the global stage. It had yet to learn the lessons of the 30-year-long “struggle” in Northern Ireland. It not only failed to understand what was going on, but had no appropriate language to describe the events. Its response was a largely brutal one of facing violence with violence, with a far greater force of men, but out of its depth facing guerrilla operations. Back in the UK, politicians had to deal with a largely unsophisticated and uninformed electorate which resented the loss of colony after colony. In the words of US Secretary of State Foster Dulles, Britain had “lost an empire and failed to find a role”.
My tiny role in these events was largely as a helpless, ignorant spectator. When I was sent to Cyprus, I received no political briefing on the reason for my presence there. Those in charge of us knew little better. In the words of the officer commanding a road block I manned “Use your common sense”.
Let me return now to Kyrenia and introduce Lawrence Durrell. His brilliant book, _Bitter Lemons_ for the first time revealed to the English-speaking world the subtlety of the emotions behind the conflict, as well as the political pressures that had brought it about. He was recruited in a master stroke by the British government as their Information Officer; effectively head of their PR. _Bitter Lemons_ is his account of how he set about this job. Durrell was Irish and didn’t like the Brits very much. He did like the Greeks and one of a handful of Greek speakers in the service of the British government during its 80-year occupation of the island.
He bought a house in Kyrenia and made local friends in including Kollis, the Custodian of Bellapais Abbey, whose photo is included in the early editions of the book. I met Kollis and the man who took over Durrell’s job, whose marvellous conversation I have sadly forgotten – but it was a wonderful contrast to the unremitting coarseness and obscenities of everyday army language.
Bellapais Abbey is enjoying good times. The main room has been restored and at the time of my last visit was hosting a month-long music festival. Heaven only knows how they cope with the parking!
Bellapais’ happiness and prosperity is reflected across Cyprus as a whole, both in my last visit, taking in Larnaca and Paphos, and in the previous one to the north. One new dimension is the development alongside tourism of archaeology, which has expanded rapidly in recent decades. The Cyprus Museum in Nicosia is clearly worth a visit.
A more recent development still is the growing influence of Russia: one of the newest hotels is named ‘Odessa’, presumably as it is marketed largely in Russia. Russians and the Russian language pop up everywhere. How many poorly paid Cypriot employees are there working in the British bases? The security issues must be a nightmare.
The division of the island following the Turkish invasion in 1974 is held on all sides to be a disaster, and many personal accounts concern genuine loss of homes and property. But the two groups of Greeks and Turks have never enjoyed much real integration, and now both appear at peace within their borders. A further happy dimension is the apparent peaceful relations they enjoy in Britain.

Uma Rija Maria

Já vos tinha prometido um apanhado daquilo que vou sabendo sobre os antecedentes dos meus familiares com base em Salvaterra do Extremo. Hoje toca a vez à minha bisavó Maria Rija da qual nada se sabia até agora, ao menos da nossa parte. O que encontrei além de dar corpo e alma a uma mulher que nasceu na freguesia do Rosmaninhal em 1858 foi que se descobre uma nova pessoa, em vez daquela imagem estereotipica da criada, que teve dois filhos com o proprietário da terra.
Vou, com aquilo que tenho, tentar reconstruir os eventos  ligados à casa da rua de S. João naqueles anos de finans do século XIX. Em 1878 fica João Henriques Pinheiro viuvo com morte de sua mulher Maria da Graca e Moura. Deixa ela em morte 5 filhos- os Moura Pinheiros.
Em 1880 comeca-se a dar conta que Maria Rija que trabalha como criada na residencia da Rua de S.João está grávida. Vai para a Zebreira para ficar com uma tia- Isabel Affonso- e na Zebreira dá à luz o meu avô João.  Nesse batizado não se identificam os progenitores. Um ano depois nasce agora uma filha, já em Salvaterra, e se batiza  tambem com o nome Maria e cuja mãe se sabe agora ser Maria Rija filha legítima do casal do Rosmaninhal José Mendes Affonso e Rita Pomba Rija. A minha bisavó tem agora dois filhos recém-nascidos. Estes sabe-se mais tarde terem o apelido Henriques Pinheiro.

Em 1888, dois anos após o falecimento de João Henriques Pinheiro (1817- 1886), casa-se Maria Rija com José Fernandes Cypriano, alfaiate da terra e com ele tem pelo menos os filhos Isabel(1889), Germana(1890),Bartolomeu (1892) e José(1894). Não sabemos se o meu avô João conhecia estes meio irmãos uma vez que ficou ao cuidado de outro meio irmão o José de Moura Pinheiro. Podemos verificar que Maria Rija sabia escrever e que tinha um estilo forte e seguro quando assina o seu contrato de casamento. A minha curiosidade não termina aqui e continuarei a ver se descubro mais alguns factos sobre a vida e descendência da bisavó Maria do Rosmaninhal, concelho de Idanha-a-Nova. Esta reconstrução está baseada nos indícios daquilo que pude colher nos documentos da igreja e nunca saberemos ao certo e com exatidão o que se passou à volta do nascimento do meu avô João Henriques Pinheiro. Pode ser que alguém ainda possa elucidar. Principalmente gostaria de ver uma foto de Maria Rija.